III, No. An unconventional poet with a strong critical voice, Gioia has been subsumed under the New Formalist movement which he helped define and extensively theorized in his critical essays. Keywords: new formalism, new expansivism, contemporary American poetry.
Introduction Dana Gioia is both one of the most interesting voices in contemporary American poetry and one of the most misunderstood bards. These two qualities, it is true, often go together.
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Like Wallace Stevens, he worked during the day, and wrote at night, his poetry bearing the traces of a self-discipline that sometimes makes his words heavy with expressive vigour. Again like Stevens, he made more than poetry, turning his critical acumen to the analysis of the state of contemporary American poetry.
The Dating Divorcat Femeie Agadir on New Formalism, which engaged quite a handful of critics, theoreticians, academic and poets, was illustrative for the new direction that American poetry was going into after the legacy of post-war modernists proved to be exhausted. Poets who emerged in the 80s like Timothy Steele, Dana Gioia, Brad Leithauser, Vikram Seth, Charles Martin, David Mason sought simultaneously to restore some formal elements to the free-verse tradition of the modernists, as well as make poetry more accessible to the general public.
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Rhyme and meter, together with narrative, were viewed as the cornerstones of the new poetry: formal elements that translated into a structure ready for performance. This was an unfortunate result of ideology getting mixed up in literary aesthetics: in the ideological grid of the free-verse advocates, free verse meant democracy, formal verse reactionary conservatism. Formal elements in poetry, like meter, he argues, are part of an old poetic tradition which privileged the aural aspect of poetry.
Poetry intended to be performed, poetry as part of religious or other rituals made copious use of formal elements to build structures that enabled human memory to retain them.
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Like in ancient traditions, the contemporary form is connected to an important social function of poetry. Last but not Dating Divorcat Femeie Agadir, Gioia draws upon his own experience as a poet and a teacher to explain the interaction and interconnection of both fixed and open forms: In my own poetry I have always worked in both fixed and open forms.
Each mode opened up possibilities of style, subject, music and development the other did not suggest, at least at that moment. Likewise, experience in each mode provided an illuminating perspective on the other.
Working in free verse helped keep the language of my formal poems varied and contemporary, just as writing in form helped keep my free verse more focused and precise. For Gioia, though, form assumes a dynamic that one rarely associates with form in the traditional sense; as he himself remarks, what makes sense is not the fixity or the openness of forms, but their interaction.
How hungrily one waits to feel the bright lure seized, the old hook bitten. While expansive poetry came to be associated with the revival of the narrative poem, R. His advocacy of a return to form in American poetry identified him in the mind of the literary establishment as a New Formalist, although his poetry was far more complex. The problem with this type of criticism Dating Divorcat Femeie Agadir that it adheres too tightly to religious dogma, and sets a Procrustean bed as a standard for judging poetry.
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In their own ways, religion and poetry approach truth, eternity and God from two distinct angles: while religion, as an organized institution with a spiritual mission relies heavily on dogma, poetry is at its best when it gives free rein to non-dogmatic play and experiment. This kind of criticism does injustice both to Hopkins and to Gioia. They neither reinforce, nor contradict Catholic dogma, because they function on a different ontological level altogether.
In fact, throughout the Daily Horoscope, Gioia plays with this double meaning of mystery, setting the enigmatic Dating Divorcat Femeie Agadir the sacramental. The modern idea of divination relies on the enigmatic: the mystery of life has a solution, and this solution can be guessed, through a special technique, by the diviner.
The modern taste for the occult, developed during the age of scientific progress and secularization, is a natural consequence of the gradual loss of the feeling for the holy mysteries.
After all, the occult is a mystery that lies hidden under the veils of reality: though normally inaccessible, it can be made manifest in certain conditions, by the actions of certain people, or just by using certain techniques.
Things that go beyond the pale of reason are banished from our lives, and with them, the world and our experience becomes poorer. Nor can he be dubbed a purely New Formalist or New Expansivist.
In fact, I doubt that any label can be accurately tied to his work. A metaphysical poet, Gioia is neither religious, nor an esotericist like his modernist predecessors; he relates to the transcendent through the experience of limit and limitations: suffering, death, loss, despair, bleakness, Cautarea femeii 27. A Critical Introduction.
Не желая тратить дыхание, Хилвар только кивнул в ответ. Ему в голову уже пришла та же самая мысль. Это был превосходный предметный урок для неосторожных посетителей, подумалось .
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- Не было также признаков разума: они дважды облетели планету, не заметив следов хоть чего-нибудь рукотворного.
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Western Writers Series no. Boise State University Printing,